Lockwood Arms, Green Lane, Hull, England
The article below has been reproduced with the kind permission of the author Paul Gibson.
As one of a cluster of working men’s pubs in the centre of Sculcoates, the impressive exterior of the Lockwood Arms still conjures up images of an era in Hull’s industrial history now long forgotten by the average "Kingstonian". The story of the Lockwood is one that provides as many questions as answers.
The first available plan of the area dated 1784 from the City Archive shows how Green Lane ran west from the foreshore of the River Hull with an ancient "footpath to Sculcoates Church" cutting across northwards at a point halfway along the lane. This was to become William Street and eventually Lockwood Street. (The church was St.Mary’s at the east end of Air Street).
A later plan of 1800 regarding the re-routing of a drain, which ran along the line of the footpath to Sculcoates church, showed the field to the north of Green Lane to belong to Benjamin Blaydes a ship builder and land owner of note in Hull at that time.
By the time of Baines’ plan of Hull in 1823, a small farm was shown on the site at the corner of Green Lane and the footpath to the church. Gradually the triangle of land including the farm became bounded by formal gardens to the south and west. By the time of Goodwill and Lawson’s plan of Hull in 1842 the land owned formally by Mr. Blaydes was shown as part of the Dock Office’s land.
John Lockwood, a gardener was listed in Battle’s 1810 directory as the victualler at an un-named alehouse in Neptune Street. This site had previously been known as Lockwood’s Gardens and it can be presumed that Mr Lockwood opened licensed premises in his gardens, a common practise at that time. Later in Battle’s trade directory of 1817 John Lockwood was listed as a gardener in Wincolmlee. Later still, in Cragg’s trade directory of 1835, Catherine Lockwood, a "gardener and dealer in seeds" was listed in Green Lane. Catherine and her family were almost certainly the origin of the name Lockwood Street and their premises may have been at the corner of Wincolmlee and Green Lane. The Buildings Register, a list of applications for permission for building works to be inspected and passed, is held in the Hull City Archives; in 1866 there were several references to "Lockwood’s Walk" and references continue to be seen in the books up to and including 1871. This could have been the line of Lockwood Street and the western boundary of the Lockwood property.
Wilkinson’s plan of 1848 showed the farm to have gone and been replaced by houses with rear gardens fronting onto Green Lane. The first in the line was at the corner of the footpath to the church and was likely to be the building that became the beerhouse that evolved into the Lockwood Arms. The land was shown as belonging to George Locking esquire (could this have been an error- should it have read Lockwood?).
The first Ordnance Survey Plan of Hull in 1852/3 showed the footpath to the church developed at this section as William Street. The property at the corner seems possibly to have encompassed the former farm building. To the west of William Street a regimentally planted orchard was shown and could have been taken over or planted by the Lockwoods. A safer bet would be the gardens shown to the south west, across Green Lane. These were shown as a series of gardens obviously intended as pleasure gardens shown by their paths and areas for rest. Is it possible Mr Lockwood opened a beer-house near his new gardens as he had in Neptune Street? Other buildings along the newly built up Green Lane included a brewery and an oil mill at the east end near the river.
The 1861 Census return for this area of Sculcoates listed Mr. Edward Henton a "cow keeper"; his wife and their 4 children at number 24 Green Lane on the night of the survey. Wright’s trade directory for Hull in 1863 listed an Edward Fenton, cow keeper in Green Lane and it is obvious the two were one and the same.
The census of 1871 listed for the first time-
The Lockwood Arms:-
Mr. Robert Wainright, publican and wheelright (born Castleford) his wife and their 4 children.
Interestingly this seems to suggest that the pub was named before the street. No written references have yet been found to Lockwood Street until 1874. The trade directory of that year recorded R.O.Wainwright as beer retailer in Lockwood Street. There was of course Lockwood Walk, which had been recorded since the 1860s and the possibility that the Lockwood Arms may have had its origins in the family name. (The line of Lockwood Street was shown on a plan of Hull circa 1868 as Lister Street, this may have been an intended name as the land to the west of Lockwood Street had been owned by the trustees of Lister’s hospital)
The large scale 1891 Ordnance Survey plan showed the Lockwood Arms to have taken over the building to its east along Green Lane. It is possible that it was rebuilt at this point but the evidence from later plans would suggest the conversion of several properties into one. The trade directory of 1905 gave the first complete address for the Lockwood as No.4 Lockwood Street and No.56 Green Lane, which must have been re-numbered as its south side became built upon.
In January 1908 Hull architects Freeman, Son & Gaskell drew up plans on behalf of the Hull Brewery Company. They give a clear picture of the internal layout of the Lockwood at the time. It can clearly be seen how the two original properties had been joined and how the private house next to the Lockwood on Lockwood Street was almost completely surrounded. This could have been another instance of the brewery buying the adjacent property in advance of any possible future growth.
In January 1914 possibly unaware of the impending war and optimistic about the future of the Hull & Barnsley railway station across the road from the Lockwood, the Hull Brewery Company again called on Freeman Son & Gaskell. This time the Lockwood was almost completely rebuilt with a third storey and impressive external re-facing work. A dated rainwater hopper on the south-east corner of the building confirms the work to have taken place in 1914. It is obvious that the Lockwood was to be a hotel to serve the immediate area. At this date the famous lost semi-circular coloured glazed bar was added.
Six bays by three, its longest aspect to Lockwood Street the Lockwood Arms is a little noticed treasure of Art Deco style. The keystone and foliage decoration over the first and second floor windows is typical of this date and style. Hints of late Art Nouveau in the leaded glass of the small bay windows of the staircase well. The double hipped roof, the excellent faience tile work with raised and fielded panels. The fine scrolling and sashwork also in faience on the canted corner, the more you look the more you begin to realise the quality of the work. The name of the pub was spelt in raised lettering in the faience tiles and survives to this day. Internal details were as impressive. The etched glass "Belt & Anchor" logo advertising windows of the entry doors lead into high walled rooms with ornate panelled plaster ceilings with fruit and garland details. The ceramic tiles of the bar continue around the room in a full dado.
By the same team and in the same year the Drum & Cymbals P.H. at the corner of Osbourne Street Upper Union Street was rebuilt in an uncannily similar design. Sadly the Drum & Cymbals was lost in the blitz of 1941.
Surviving both World Wars and the further blitz of the local council redevelopment schemes the Lockwood continued as a reasonably popular Hull Brewery local. Trade fell as the council re-housed many of the locals on far-flung estates. Local industry also shifted and the area suffered the same fate as other derelict former industrial sites all around Hull. The loss of the Newbegin Arms across Green Lane helped briefly but trade was poor. Another wave of redevelopment in the late 1960’s began a steady decline for the Lockwood as most of its locals were scattered across the new estates on Hull’s outskirts.
Mansfield took over the Hull Brewery and in 1985 and just one year later had sold the Lockwood to Cameron’s. In an effort to attract more trade live entertainment of a somewhat dubious nature was held on Sunday afternoons, late lock-ins were frequent and subsequent prosecutions usually followed. Pubmaster took over and the Lockwood’s fate was sealed within a decade. Closed and put up for sale in 1997 the future looked bleak.
CAMRA and local historians including myself, joined forces and somewhat surprisingly managed to obtain listing for the Lockwood from the Secretary of State for listed building status grade II. This deterred local builders and demolition demons and an outside team from the Wakefield area bought the premises unaware of its impending status. Sadly, before the implications of the responsibilities of owning a listed building were explained, the new owners made a few unsympathetic changes to the pub.
Internal lobbies and integral etched windows disappeared; a small bar was lost along with an original fireplace and surround. Carpet now covers parquet flooring in the small bar. Fortunately the exterior fared better and the only detrimental move was to again cover the faience lettering with the new name board and change some window frames for rather out of place "Georgian" style replacements. The new name was to be the Old Bull & Bush. Abbreviated to Bull & Bush the pub re-opened and is currently enjoying a thriving Friday and Saturday night trade whilst being very popular with the Gay community. For my part the saddest addition is the inclusion of a disco podium at the end of the bar. It puzzles me to think how a disco fits in with the landlord’s idea of a Victorian theme. However, the building is safe for the time being. A rare success for the pub lovers and historians.
1871 - Robert Wainright, Lockwood Arms, 24 Green Lane
1874 - R.O. Wainwright, Lockwood Arms, Lockwood Street
1881 - Charles Weatherill, Lockwood Arms, 21 Green Lane
1892 - Miss A. Dent, Lockwood Arms, Lockwood Street
1897 - F. Stewart, Green Lane
1901 - F. Stewart, 56 Green Lane
1905 – Mrs. E. Stewart, 4 Lockwood Street & 56 Green Lane
1907 - Mrs. Emma Whitling , 56 Green Lane
1916 - Mrs Anne Rowland, 56 Green Lane
1921 - Frederick Olsen, 56 Green Lane
1929 - Wm. H. Ridley, 56 Green Lane
1930 - David Wilkin, 56 Green Lane
1937 - Lockwood Arms, 56 Green Lane
1939 - David J. Philips, Lockwood Arms, 56 Green Lane
Victoria County History of the County of York and the East Riding. Volume 1. The City of Kingston upon Hull.Edited by K.J. Allison. Oxford University Press for Institute of Historical Research, 1969.
A History of Hull. E. Gillett & K.A. MacMahon.1980, revised reprinted edition, Hull University Press, 1989.
A New Picture of Georgian Hull. Ivan and Elizabeth Hall. William Sessions Ltd., York and Hull Civic Society, 1978/79.
Streets of Hull: A History of their Names. John Markham. Highgate Publications (Beverley) Ltd., 1987.
Landlord, Graham Wilkinson & Paul Gibson. Work in progress.
Lost Churches and Chapels of Hull. David Neave, with Geoff Bell, Christopher Ketchell and Susan Neave. Hull City Museums & Art Galleries and the Hutton Press, 1991.
Barley Mash & Yeast: A History of The Hull Brewery Company 1782-1985. Robert Barnard. Hutton Press Ltd., and Hull College, 1990.
The Buildings of England. Yorkshire: York and the East Riding. Nikolaus Pevsner and David Neave. Penguin Books,1972 second edition 1995.
Hull and East Yorkshire Breweries. Pat Aldabella and Robert Barnard. East Yorkshire Local History Society. 1997.
Christopher Ketchell. Reference to his original notes on the Lockwood.
Hull City Archive. Thanks to Elspeth.
Jack & Annie. Proof reading.
PAUL L. GIBSON
HULL. 1998 (Revised May, June 2000).