Lockwood DNA Study - Details
1. What is examined?
Each persons DNA is made up of 23 pairs of chromosomes. One half of the pair comes from the father and the other half of the pair comes from the mother. Of these 23 pairs, 22 are very similar in both the father and mother, however the 23rd set, which is known as the sex chromosome is different. Females have two X chromosomes, and males have one X chromosome from the mother and one Y chromosome from the father. As the Y chromosome can only be passed from father to son, it is this chromosome which is examined for the purposes of genealogy.
The Y chromosome is passed down the male line almost unchanged. Over a period of time some markers will change (mutate) - some markers will mutate at a faster rate than others. The average is around 0.2% per generation per marker. Put another way, a marker may be expected to mutate once every 500 transmission events (birth of a boy).
2. How does the analysis work?
The Y-DNA is examined. The depth of the test is dependant on how many markers of the Y chromosome are examined. The more markers that are examined, the more accurate but more costly the test. At the moment tests can be done on 10, 12, 17, 23, 25, 26, 37 , 43 and 67 markers. Note however, that different laboratories will test different sets of markers although there is a considerable overlap.
A small kit is sent out which contains a small brush which used to take a swab sample from inside the cheek. The brush is sent back in a protective wrapper to the laboratory for analysis. The result will be a series of numbers, such as:-
The above means that marker DYS393 has 13 repeats, and marker DYS390 has 25 repeats.
The results from some of the markers will reveal the persons haplogroup. There are 28 such groups for the whole of the human population. The results of the other markers will reveal the persons halpotype, the numeric pattern for the individual. Taken these two results together will result in the DNA signature for the individual man.
3. How much is it?
This depends on which laboratory is used. Currently all participants of the Lockwood One Name Study use the services of Family Tree DNA. The prices are more expensive if the tests are done individually but are cheaper if done as part of the Lockwood One Name Study. For details of current prices and if any seasonal special offers are available please go to the How to Participate page.
4. What about Data Protection and Privacy?
There are a number of important issues with regard to Data Protection and Privacy. A balance between making the results known to the public to be meaningful and retaining the privacy of the individual must be made. This is achieved in the following ways:-
No individual is personally identified, unless they wish. All participants are given an ID code in the form "xn" where x is a letter denoting a family group and n is the individual number. Only the DNA study co-ordinator and the laboratory undertaking the test will know the identity of the individual.
Each participant should ideally be able to trace their family back to at least the mid 1800s. Each family group will be allocated a letter. It is possible that in time, that two or more family groups cam be linked. Each family tree up to 1900 will be available to view, but details of the tree from 1900 will be hidden unless otherwise requested.
The results of the DNA test do not reveal any medical data. The DNA evaluated in this test is often called “junk DNA’ because of its lack of medical information.
5. Are there any downsides?
It is possible that the result may be unexpected due to a non-paternity event. This may be because of an adoption or an infidelity.
6. When will the results be known?
This is entirely dependant on the number of participants, and the availability of the results. From receiving the swab kit to receiving the results, one should allow 2 - 3 months. To obtain a good spread of results, it would be ideal if 2 members of a family group, say cousins are used and that 5 separate family groups are used. This will result in 10 results which should give a good indication of the Lockwood DNA structure.
7. FAQs and DNA Glossary
Below are some links to Frequently Asked Questions pages and a DNA Genealogy Glossary